Scanning your hard drive with the Error Checking tool can help identify, and possibly even correct, a range of hard drive errors, from file system issues to physical problems like bad sectors.
The Windows Error Checking tool is the GUI (graphical) version of the command-line chkdsk tool, one of the more well-known commands from the early computing days. The chkdsk command is still available and offers more advanced options than Error Checking.
Error Checking is available in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP, but there are differences, all of which we'll call out below.
Time Required: Checking your hard drive with Error Checking is easy but could take anywhere from five minutes to two hours or more, depending on the size and speed of the hard drive and what problems are found.
How to Scan a Hard Drive With the Error Checking Tool
Windows 10 and Windows 8 check for errors automatically and will notify you if you need to take action, but you're welcome to run a manual check anytime you like, as described below.
Right-click the Start button and select File Explorer (Windows 10/8), Open Windows Explorer (Windows 7), or Explore (Vista/XP).
File Explorer is available via a quick search, too. Windows Explorer, in earlier versions of Windows, is also available via Computer or My Computer in the Start menu.
Select This PC (Windows 10/8), Computer (Windows 7/Vista), or My Computer (XP) in the left margin.
You might have to enable Navigation pane from the View menu if you don't see this option. In XP, this is in View > Explorer Bar > Folders.
Right-click or tap-and-hold the drive that you want to check for errors on (usually C), and select Properties.
If you don't see any drives under the heading you located in Step 2, select the little arrow to the left to show the list of drives.
Select the Tools tab at the top of the window.
What you do now depends on which version of Windows you're using:Windows 10 & 8: Choose Check followed by Scan drive, and then skip down to Step 8.Windows 7, Vista, & XP: Choose Check now and then continue with Step 6.
See What Version of Windows Do I Have? if you're not sure what you're running.
Two options are available before starting an Error Checking scan in Windows 7, Vista, and XP:Automatically fix file system errors will, if possible, automatically correct file system related errors that the scan detects. We highly recommend that you check this option every time.Scan for and attempt recovery of bad sectors will perform a search for areas of the hard drive that may be damaged or unusable. If found, this tool will mark those areas as "bad" and prevent your computer from using them in the future. This is a very useful feature but could extend the scan time as much as a few hours.
The first option is equivalent to executing chkdsk /f and the second to executing chkdsk /scan /r. Checking both is the same as executing chkdsk /r.
Wait while Error Checking scans the selected hard drive for errors and, depending on options you selected and/or what errors are found, fixes any errors found.
If you get a Windows can't check the disk while it's in use message, select Schedule disk check, close any other open windows, and then restart your computer. You'll notice that Windows takes much longer to start up and you'll see text on the screen as the Error Checking (chkdsk) process completes.
Follow whatever advice is given after the scan. If errors were found, you may be asked to restart your computer. If no errors were found, you can close any open windows and continue using your computer normally.
If you're interested, a detailed log of the Error Checking scan, and what was corrected if anything was, can be found in the list of Application events in Event Viewer. If you have trouble locating it, focus your attention on Event ID 26226.